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四级听力考试短文理解考场应急高招

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听力短文因为文章较长,涉及的信息较多,相对来说难度较大。而我们能够读取的信息仍然就只有几个选项,因此听音前阅读选项、了解短文的弦外之音、从选项中寻找突破点就变得更为重要。尤其是在因为一时紧张而只听到只言片语的时候,下面的几个应急高招可能真的可以成为你的“救命稻草”呢!绝对有效,不信就试试!
 
  第一招:主题不一致的选项不要选
  一是要与整篇短文的主题一致。根据各题选项内容我们往往可以大致推测出短文的主题,如果某一选项明显与短文主题不相关,那么该选项往往不是答案。
  二是要与选项所在题目的主题一致。与其他三个选项内容明显不同,即与该题主题明显不相关选项往往不是答案。
 
  第二招:相反的选项必有一个为答案
  四个选项中,如果有两个选项意思明显相反,那么其中往往有一个为答案。
 
  第三招:相近的选项均不是答案
  四个选项中,如果有两个选项意思明显相近,那么这两个选项往往均不是答案。
 
  第四招:包含其他选项的选项不是答案
  有的选项的含义明显包含另一个选项的含义,那么该选项往往不是答案。
 
  第五招:不符常理的选项不要选
  有的选项明显不符合该对话情景下的常识或常理,那么该选项往往不是答案。
 
  【例1】 (06-6 Passage One)           加耳机

【预览选项】
11. [A] Social work.
[B] Medical care.
[C] Applied physics.
[D] Special education.
12. [A]The timely advice from her friends and relatives.
[B] The two-year professional training she received.
[C] Her determination to fulfill her dream.
[D] Her parents’ consistent moral support.
13. [A] To get the funding for the hospitals.
[B] To help the disabled children there.
[C] To train therapists for the children there.
[D] To set up an institution for the handicapped.
 
【听前预测】
预览三道题各选项,由medical care(医疗护理), hospitals, 以及therapists(治疗专家)可推测本文可能与医疗工作有关;而由special education(特殊教育),disabled(残疾的)和handicapped(残疾的)可推测本文还可能与残疾人特殊教育有关,但12、13题各选项并没有涉及到任何有关教育的问题。因此综合来看,本文主题很可能是关于残疾人的医疗工作。
11.四个选项均是某一学科领域,由前面对主题的分析可推断本题答案为[B]Medical care的可能性较大,听音时再确认具体是哪个领域。
12.选项特点表明本题很可能是关于影响“她”做某种决定的因素(friends and relatives, parents, training, determination)。听音时主要判断是来自“谁”的因素。
13.选项均为不定式形式,表明本题很可能是考查某事的目的或原因。[A]是有关资金问题,偏离主题,不大可能为答案。听音时需留意以下要点:help disabled children;train therapists;set institution for handicapped。
【听音验证】
Born and raised in central Ohio, I’m a country girl through and through. [11] I’m currently studying to become a physical therapist, a career path that marks a greater achievement for me. At Ohio State University, admission into the physical therapy program is intensely competitive. I made it pass the first cuts the first year I applied, but was turned down for admission. I was crushed, because for years I have been determined to become a physical therapist. I received advice from friends and relatives about changing my major and finding another course for my life. I just couldn’t do it. I knew I could not be as happy in another profession. [12] So I stilled myself, began to work seriously for another year and reapplied. Happily I received notice of my admission. Later, I found out that less than 15% of the applicant had been offered positions that year. Now in the first two years of professional training, I couldn’t be happier with my decision not to give up on my dream. My father told me that if I wanted it badly enough, I would get in. Well, Daddy, I wanted it. So there.
After graduation, I would like to travel to another country, possibly a Latin American country and [13] work in a children's hospital for a year or two. So many of the children there are physically handicapped but most hospitals don’t have the funding to hire trained staff to care for them properly. I would like to change that somehow.
【答案解析】
11. What is the speaker's field of study?
【解析】选[B]。推断题。本题是问说话者研究的领域是什么。根据文中的studying to become a physical therapist可知说话人目前在学习成为一名理疗师,而physical therapist明显属于medical care的范畴,由此可推知说话人的学习领域属于medical care(医疗)范畴。故答案为[B]。解答此题时切忌将physical therapist(理疗师)中的physical与physics(物理学)联系起来而误选[C]。
12. According to the speaker, what contributed to her admission to Ohio State University?
【解析】选[C]。推断题。本题是问说话者被俄亥俄州立大学录取的原因是什么。根据文中So I stilled myself, began to work seriously for another year and reapplied.一句可知说话人坚持了自己的梦想,并努力为实现梦想而奋斗,由此可推知她最终被录取是因为她determination to fulfill her dream(实现梦想的决心),故答案为[C]。本题的答案是解答本题要注意不能根据只言片语妄下结论,如听到received advice from friends and relatives就误选[A]。
13. Why does the speaker want to go to a Latin American country?
【解析】选[B]。细节题。本题是问说话者想去拉美国家的原因是什么。根据文中work in a children's hospital for a year or two. So many of the children there are physically handicapped but most hospitals don’t have …可知说话人想去拉美国家是为了help the disabled children there(帮助那里的残疾儿童),故答案为[B]。
 

  【例2】(04-1 Passage two)                     加耳机

【预览选项】
14. [A]Coca Cola.
[B]Sausage.
[C]Milk.
[D]Fried chicken.
15. [A] He has had thirteen decayed teeth.
[B]He doesn’t have a single decayed tooth.
[C]He has fewer decayed teeth than other people of his age.
[D]He never had a single tooth pulled out before he was fifty.
16. [A] Brush your teeth right before you go to bed in the evening.
[B]Have as few of your teeth pulled out as possible.
[C]Have your teeth X-rayed at regular intervals.
[D]Clean your teeth shortly after eating.
 
【听前预测】
14.由15、16题各选项内容可推测本文主题应该是关于牙齿保健。而本题选项都是食物或饮料,结合对文章主题的分析,本题很可能是问哪种东西对牙齿有害。根据常识,四种食物或饮料中Coca Cola最容易伤害牙齿,因为其含糖量较高。
15.选项表明本题考查的是某人的牙齿状况(是否有蛀牙)。[A]、[B]、[C]都是关于蛀牙的问题,[D]则是关于拔牙的问题,故可初步排除。
16.选项表明本题考查的是保护牙齿的正确方法。根据对前两题的分析可推知,本题很可能是关于预防蛀牙的方法,并且很可能与饮食有关。因此 [B]、[C]为答案的可能性较小;而[A]、[D]为答案的可能性较大。
【听音验证】
How many teeth have you had filled in the past 2 years? If you follow the advice of Dr. Forstic, you may be able to reduce the number of your visit to a dentist. Dr. Forstic conducted a two-year survey to find out how to prevent or reduce dental decay. 946 students took part in the experiment. 523 students cleaned their teeth within 10 minutes of eating. When possible, they used toothbrush. When this was impossible, they washed their mouth thoroughly with water. The remaining 423 students merely cleaned their teeth when they went to bed and when they got up in the morning. All the students had their teeth X-rayed at the end of the first and second years. At the end of the first year, the night-and-morning group had three times as many decayed teeth as the clean-after-each-meal group. At the end of the second year, the latter group had 53% fewer decayed teeth than the former group. [15B] Dr. Forstic has cleaned his teeth after every meal for 13 years, and has not had a single decayed tooth. [14A]He pointed out that sugar is a major agent in dental decay, particularly the sugar in sweets, cakes and soft drinks. Ideally, [16D]you should keep a toothbrush in your pocket and use it immediately after you have finished eating. When this is impractical, you can at least make sure that you have a drink of water and let the water through your teeth, to force out any particles of food. Seven out of ten people lose at least half their teeth by the time they are fifty. Many have a complete set of false teeth by that time. In any case, neither toothache nor a visit to a dentist is very pleasant. So, it is worthwhile making an effort to keep your own teeth as long as possible. The main preventive agent is simply water.
【答案解析】
14. According to the passage, what type of food or drink is most likely to cause dental decay?
【解析】 选[A]。细节题。根据原文中“ sugar is a major agent in dental decay, particularly the sugar in sweets, cakes and soft drinks.”而 Coca Cola 是soft drinks中的一种,故答案为[A]。
15. What does the passage tell us about the condition of Doctor Forstic’s teeth?
【解析】 选[B]。细节题。根据原文中Dr. Forstic has cleaned his teeth after every meal for 13 years, and has not had a single decayed tooth.可知Dr. Forstic没有一颗蛀牙,故答案为[B]。
16. What does Doctor Forstic suggest to prevent dental decay?
【解析】 选[D]。细节题。根据原文中you should keep a toothbrush in your pocket and use it immediately after you have finished eating.可知饭后保持牙齿的清洁是防止蛀牙的有效方法,故答案为[D]。


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